Hybrid cars are now more popular than conventional cars due to lower lifetime operating cost and environmental impact.
Hybrid car uses a combination of an electric motor and a traditional engine to power the vehicle. This means the car uses a combination of electricity stored in batteries and fuel stored in a tank to drive the car forward.
Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are often more expensive than similar conventional vehicles, though some cost may be recovered through fuel savings or state incentives.
A wide variety of HEV models is currently available, popular classes are full hybrid, plug-in hybrid and electric vehicles.
Full hybrid vehicles are using a battery and electric motor in addition to an engine that runs on gasoline.
These type cars are also more efficient and they can automatically choose to operate in electric mode, or engine mode. The example of a full hybrid is the Toyota Prius but today many automakers now offer full hybrids.
Plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHVs) have both an internal combustion engine and electric motor. These vehicles are powered by gasoline (petrol/octane), and a battery, which is charged up with electricity by plugging into an electrical outlet or charging station.
Electric vehicles (EVs) also called battery electric vehicles are propelled by an electric motor powered by rechargeable battery packs. No other fuel source is used, and there is no internal combustion engine.
Here are few of the drawbacks of a hybrid car:-hybrid cars are often less power than gasoline powered engine and more suited for city driving and not for speed and acceleration.
Hybrid cars are comparatively expensive than a regular petrol car but that extra amount can be offset with lower running cost. Weight of hybrid car is higher due to a gasoline powered engine, a lighter electric motor and a pack of powerful batteries. The presence of dual engine, continuous improvement in technology led to higher maintenance cost and difficult to get good mechanics to repair the car.
In case of an accident, the high voltage present inside the batteries can prove lethal for passenger. When you start up a hybrid vehicle, you may not even realize it!
The engine is so quiet that you can hardly hear it all, this is true even when you are driving down the road. The unique engine and power supplies are the cause of this silence, even you can’t see out of the cars and nobody hears you are coming.
The number of mainstream manufacturers are rushing to market hybrid and new electric cars with growing market demand. Such as Volvo announced that all its new cars will have a battery and electric motor by 2019.
Mercedes, Audi, Toyota and Volkswagen are hot on the electric cars trail as well. Countries that have made early progress in the sale of electric cars, such as Norway, France, the Netherlands, and the UK, are expected to be among the leaders in 2040.
Norway is currently the world leader in EV adoption per capita, thanks to substantial incentives, like an exemption from the 25% tax applied to vehicle sales. Norwegian buyers set a new record in June 2018, with 42% of new cars being EVs, including 27% from battery-only cars.
Bloomberg New Energy Finance’s states by 2040, 54% of new car sales and 33% of the global car fleet will be EVs. China, the U.S. and Europe make up over 60% of the global EV market in 2040.
Lithium-ion battery demand from EVs will grow from 21GWh in 2016 to 1,300GWh in 2030. We expect 270GWh of large format battery cell production to be online globally by 2021, led by global suppliers including LG Chem, Samsung SDI, Lishen, CATL, Tesla and others. The supply chain will need to scale up further in the 2020 to meet demand. Fossil fuel demand will be displaced by the growing fleet of EVs.
It projects 34% of cars on the road will be EVs by 2040 – 530 million EVs in total – which will displace up to 1272m Liters of transportation fuel per day. As per ExxonMobil 2040 Outlook for Energy, hybrid electric vehicles will reduce 40% of global light-duty vehicle sales in 2040 compared to about 3% in 2016.
Bangladesh HVs market
Emerging economies such as Bangladesh is not expected to see significant EV sales until late in the next decade, despite that country’s pledge that all new cars sold there will be electric by 2030. EVs and PEVs cars will not economical for us due to insufficient infrastructure, dusty environment, huge traffic and lack of electricity.
Although in Bangladesh demand of full hybrid cards (FHC) are growing significantly considering fuel efficiency i.e. Toyota, Prius c, 1.5 L, 4 cylinder, automatic (variable gear ratios) runs average 20 km/Ltr of gasoline, its more than 50% fuel saving than conventional cars.
As an environmental aspect a hybrid car produces 25 to 35% less in CO2 emissions than regular cars. Those who are living in cities in Asian countries including Dhaka have already realized how seriously air pollution has been poisoning life and degrading the environment.
The world’s purest recorded urban air, recording just 2 µg/m3 of PM2.5 pollution and 4 µg/m3 of PM10. As per WHO data in Dhaka, Bangladesh, the annual mean concentration of PM10 particles: 158µg/m3 (WHO guidelines: 20 µg/m3) and PM2.5: 90µg/m3 (WHO guidelines: 10µg/m3). Faulty vehicles (diesel/gasoline run), huge number of CNG filling stations are contributing to air pollution.
The government may cut the tax and supplementary duty (SD) on the import of old hybrid vehicles for fiscal 2018-19 to facilitate the use of such cars that offer better fuel economy than the conventional ones.
Importers currently have to pay 20 percent SD to bring hybrid vehicles of up to 1,600cc. Reduction in import tariff will encourage increased imports HVs. This will reduce the pressure on gas used as fuel for cars.
Engr. Md. Shahin Alom is a Deputy General Manager of MJL Bangladesh Limited.